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Mark Nonoy breaks down in tears after painful loss to Ateneo

By on January 15, 2020

first_imgDon’t miss out on the latest news and information. For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. “I did everything I can because our first group was having problems in the game,” said Nonoy who played nearly 28 minutes off the bench.“We have to step up. It’s now up to coach Aldin [Ayo] to make the adjustments for the betterment of our team come Game 2.” Lava gushes out of Taal Volcano as villagers flee Phivolcs: Cloud seeding in ashfall affected areas needs study 400 evacuees from Taal eruption take refuge in Mt. Banahaw LATEST STORIES SEA Games opening rites tickets go on sale Overcome with emotions, the would-be Rookie of the Year couldn’t help but tear up and go to assistant McJour Luib to find some support after the final buzzer sounded.“Of course it was painful because this was our goal but we came up short,” said Nonoy in Filipino Saturday at Smart Araneta Coliseum. “We’ll just take back the series in Game 2,”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSAndray Blatche has high praise for teammate Kai SottoSPORTSBig differenceSPORTSAlmazan status stays uncertain ahead of Game 4Of those players from UST who took at least five shots, it was only Nonoy who converted on a 50 percent rate and at times looked to be carrying the Growling Tigers on his shoulders.Nonoy drove to the basket every chance he got or pulled up from deep if he saw the defense sag off. ‘People evacuated on their own’ No need to wear face masks in Metro Manila, says scientist DSWD Bicol donates P1.5M worth of food packs for Taal eruption evacuees Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles05:02SEA Games 2019: Philippines clinches historic gold in women’s basketball03:22The decision on the Maguindanao Massacre case01:05Poor visibility, nakaapekto sa maraming lugar sa Batangas03:028,000 pulis sa Region 4-A, tuloy ang trabaho03:57Phivolcs, nahihirapan sa komunikasyon sa Taal01:04Sold-out: Stores run out of face masks after Taal spews ash01:45Iran police shoot at those protesting plane shootdown01:54MMDA deploys rescue team to Batangas following Taal eruption Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Andray Blatche has high praise for teammate Kai Sotto 2 village execs nabbed in Bohol buy-bust MOST READ Emotional Mark Nonoy after UST’s Game 1 loss in the UAAP Finals. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netMANILA, Phiippines—Mark Nonoy picked the best time to unleash the biggest game of his rookie year, but University of Santo Tomas’ 91-77 blowout loss to Ateneo in the Game 1 of the Finals wasn’t how he wanted to end the night.Nonoy’s career-best effort of 26 points on 9-of-18 shooting from the field, 7-of-14 from deep, and five rebounds went for naught as the Growling Tigers failed anew to dent the Blue Eagles’ seemingly impenetrable armor.ADVERTISEMENT View commentslast_img read more

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Players must take the blame, says Sagna

By on January 11, 2020

first_img0Shares0000Manchester City defender Bacary Sagna.PHOTO/courtesyUNITED KINGDOM, May 10 – Manchester City defender Bacary Sagna has said that his side will only have themselves to blame if they finish outside of the top four and fail to qualify for the Champions League.City, who sit in fourth place on the Premier League standings, are only two points ahead of Manchester United and will need the Red Devils to slip up in one of their last two matches-against West Ham United on Tuesday or Bournemouth on Sunday – if they are to have a chance of featuring in the Champions League next season. Meanwhile, City who drew 2-2 with Arsenal on Sunday, will have to beat Swansea City on Sunday to boost their chances of finishing in the top four.Sagna admitted his frustration with position City find themseleves in as they have been in the top four since the first day of the season – but that only they are responsible for the results which could see them miss out on Champions League football.“It’s very disappointing especially after the way we started the season but we are to blame because we have everything in our hands to be the best,” he told reporters.“I believe we can be the best team and if we play like we did [against Arsenal] then we are the best team but we have to play like this all season.“But that is the past and now we’re going to have to keep our heads up and going to have to get three points [in the final game of the season].“We gave a lot. Of course we’re not perfect, of course we could have done better but for me we deserve to be in the Champions League.”Failure to secure a place in the Champions League will be even harder to swallow considering that City had their best-ever showing in Europe’s top tier competition this season, reaching the semi-finals before they were knocked out by Real Madrid.With this in mind, Sagna is even more determined to once again turn out in the Champions League.“It’s a big project to be part of, a big club to be part of,” he said. “We managed to reach the semifinal, which means we are quite a good team. So it’s vital for us to be part of the Champions League.”0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)last_img read more

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I turned down Ethiopia, Vietnam for Gor -Migi

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first_imgIn an interview with Capital Sport, the Rwandese national team captain said he was further convinced to join Gor due to the presence of Meddie Kagere, Jacques Tuyisenge and Karim Nizigiyimana with whom he has played with for a long time.“I felt I would be more comfortable and settled at Gor because they are people I know and my national teammates are here as well. It was better for me to come to a place I knew what to expect rather than a new country where I didn’t know much about the club or life there,” Mugiraneza said.He stated that his former coach at Azam Stewart John Hall had tried to lure him to AFC Leopards after it became apparent he was headed for the exit at Azam.“Yes, Stu (Stewart Hall) called me when I started having problems at Azam. He talked to me about AFC and the project he had there but to me, I had my mind settled on Gor.”“I had played against them twice in the Kagame Cup and it is a club I fell in love with. The fans are great and I told myself I would want to play for this team some day. Here I am today,” the Rwandese added.Mugiraneza knows the expectation on his shoulders and has promised not to let down the fans even as he hopes in the long run, to steer Gor into continental success.PHOTO/Timothy OlobuluHe is expected to fill a midfield void that was hugely telling especially after the departure of Ugandan Khalid Aucho to South Africa in June last year.Gor head coach Jose Marcelo Ferreira is relieved that he will have so many options to pick from with the club having also signed reigning KPL player of the year Kenneth Muguna from Western Stima and Philemon Otieno from Ushuru FC.Mugiraneza knows the expectation on his shoulders and has promised not to let down the fans even as he hopes in the long run, to steer Gor into continental success.“I want to showcase my talent and help the team get the championship this season. I also want to bring my experience to the club and blend it with the one already in the club and hopefully in the next few years we can be a force to reckon with in continental football,” Mugiraneza disclosed.He brings in a wealth of experience into the club having won the Rwandese league title seven times with APR as well as two CECAFA Club cup championships and four domestic cup titles.The midfielder in 2009 also had an opportunity to attend trials in Sweden with SV Gitenberg, then in the French second tier with Le hevre and in the German Bundesliga with FC Koln where he had an opportunity to train with ex-German international Lukas Podolski.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Rwandese midfielder Jean Baptiste Mugiraneza during Gor Mahia training.PHOTO/Timothy OlobuluNAIROBI, Kenya, Jan 19- Rwandese midfielder Jean Baptiste Mugiraneza has disclosed he turned down a move to Ethiopia and Vietnam to join 15-time Kenyan Premier League champions Gor Mahia, and he is already feeling comfortable at his new home.After leaving Tanzanian side Azam FC last year, the midfielder got an offer from a club in Ethiopia while Azam wanted to sell him to a club in Vietnam but he declined both to move to Gor, a club he considered better suited for him.last_img read more

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Is he qualified?

By on January 6, 2020

first_img Get real, Rocky Re “I’m sorry” (June 19): According to City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo, he was unaware that his wife had her license suspended, he was unaware that under city policy family members of employees are not allowed to drive city vehicles, and he was unaware that he was financially responsible. I wonder if Delgadillo is also unaware of the concept “Ignorance of the law is no excuse.” To me, this story sounds like a cross between “The dog ate my homework” and “I did not inhale.” Get real, Rocky. – Kevin Teller Woodland Hills Re “I’m sorry” (June 19): The chief legal officer for the city of Los Angeles did not know about a city regulation prohibiting a family member from driving a city vehicle and did not know that his wife’s driver’s license was suspended – and several years ago? The city attorney cannot read a city regulation and does not know about other personal legal matters. How is he qualified to be city attorney? – Myrna R. Richardson Van Nuys Don’t litter Re “A world without love” (Your Opinions, June 19): Ellen Patterson, please do not worry there will be no animals because of AB 1634. Breeders are exempt from the requirement to spay or neuter their animals. Before breeding his dogs, Bryan Page should volunteer at a shelter where he can see what happens to animals that get “too old,” have medical needs that are “too expensive,” have owners who move and “don’t have room” or are victims of one of the other reasons given to justify throwing away a life. Implementing spay/neuter law will reduce the number of animals killed each year (now in the millions in the United States) and reduce taxes paid to support shelter animals. – Lillian Davis Santa Clarita Obstructing justice? Re “I’m sorry” (June 19): It seems to me that Rocky Delgadillo’s favorite saying is “Do as I say, but don’t do as I do.” Unfortunately for him, by protecting his wife, the city attorney has obstructed justice, hasn’t he? Hasn’t he committed a crime, too? Isn’t it a felony? Isn’t it a violation of the canon of ethics of the California Bar Association? Shouldn’t he resign from office? – Jean Strauber Encino Do something I am writing on behalf of myself and all adolescents under the age 16 who have my same beliefs or views on this topic. I believe that the news has become biased and not a tool to inform, but now is just a show or a form of entertainment. Why is it that we continually hear about Paris Hilton in jail? Why is it that, though the people ache and anguish to end the war in Iraq, the authorities continue the war? The death toll increases every day, people starve and have no homes, and yet the news and government do nothing about it. Something must be done. – Jimmy Quintanilla, 14 Sylmar The wall The border wall is behind schedule. President Bush should do what another president did when the Panama Canal was behind schedule: He went to the Army Corps of Engineers and got a West Point grad on the job. That West Point grad brought the Panama Canal project in ahead of schedule. So, Mr. President, go to West Point, get a grad and get the border wall finished ahead of schedule. Your base would be revitalized, and some Republicans may even be voted into office in the next election. – Carol Milton Woodland Hills Sorry about that I love it when persons who are apprehended say “I’m sorry.” That pertains to politicians, criminals, aggrieved individuals – you name it. Of course they’re sorry. Sorry that they were caught. And if this sounds as though it pertains to any celebrity or politician – I’m sorry. – Frank Barron Van Nuys160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

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talkSPORT’s Drivetime special with Gary Neville

By on January 3, 2020

first_imgEngland coach, Manchester United hero and highly respected football pundit Gary Neville pulls no punches as he discusses the biggest talking points in football as co-host of talkSPORT’s ever opinionated Drivetime show.He discusses a plethora of topics including Louis van Gaal’s future and the Red Devils’ top four hopes, while he and Adrian Durham are also joined by a very special guest live on the show.last_img

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Tony Adams’ dance moves don’t pay off as Granada lose his first game in charge

By on December 28, 2019

first_img Tony Adams faces an uphill task to keep Granada in LaLiga Tony Adams’ debut as Granada manager ended in despair as Celta de Vigo beat the LaLiga strugglers 3-0, LIVE on talkSPORT 2.Brought in to keep the Spanish minnows in the top flight, the Arsenal legend could do nothing to improve Granada’s fate – and they remain seven points off safety with just six games remaining.Jozabed opened the scoring for visitors Celta 23 minutes in with a lovely finish, and although they dominated play, it took until the second half before the 10th placed outfit doubled their lead – Marcelo Diaz converting a superb free-kick.Three minutes later, the three points were guaranteed with Claudio Beauvue adding the third goal.The Granada players clearly did not understand what Adams was trying to teach them when he did those strange dance moves… 1last_img read more

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Stuart Armstrong joins Scotland squad as Oli McBurnie out

By on December 24, 2019

first_imgThe Scots sit second bottom of Group I with six points from six games, leaving automatic qualification prospects bleak.However, they have a possible second route to the finals through the Nations League play-offs next March. Stuart Armstrong has been called into the Scotland squad for the upcoming 2020 European Championship qualifiers against Russia and San Marino.The Southampton midfielder replaces Sheffield United striker Oli McBurnie, who has withdrawn with an unspecified injury.Steve Clarke’s side face second-placed Russia in Moscow on Thursday night before hosting minnows San Marino on Sunday.Motherwell defender Declan Gallagher was called up on Sunday for the first time following the withdrawal of Ryan Jack and Grant Hanley.last_img read more

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DMG Motors showcase All-New SEAT Ibiza in Donegal

By on December 22, 2019

first_imgThe eagerly anticipated all-new SEAT Ibiza was showcased at the Donegal International Rally on Saturday June 17th and Sunday June 18th. The in-demand vehicle is now back at DMG Motors Showroom in Donegal Town.DMG Motors were one of the first dealers in the country to showcase the all-new SEAT Ibiza as part of this year’s highly anticipated SEAT Ibiza roadshow.The all-new SEAT Ibiza, recently awarded the prestigious Red Dot Award 2017 for product design, will arrive at SEAT dealers across Ireland this June in time for the 172 registration period. The vehicle is now back at DMG Motors Showroom on the Clar Road in Donegal Town. The Ibiza, which was first launched in 1984, has become an icon of the SEAT brand in all markets. It ranks as SEAT’s top-selling model, with over 5.4 million units sold globally and over 30,000 sold in the Irish market.Dealer Principal, Stephen McCaul commented; “The all-new SEAT Ibiza is arriving just in time for the 172 plate. We are really excited to be one of the first dealers in the country to showcase this new model.“The all-new Ibiza was at the Donegal International Rally on June 17th and 18th and we invite customers to come and get an exclusive look at the fifth generation Ibiza and its product advancements.” The fifth generation of the SEAT Ibiza has been developed in Barcelona and is a decisive step forward in the future of SEAT. It shows key factors including practicality, intelligent technology and connectivity.The all-new Ibiza has Front Assist, Adaptive Cruise Control, wireless charger and GSM signal amplifier all available as options. The all-new Ibiza can also lay claim to having the largest boot of the segment.In addition, the all-new Ibiza is 100% connected thanks to three options: Apple CarPlay, Android Auto and Mirror Link demonstrating SEAT’s ambition to become a leader in in-car connectivity and in the development of new mobility solutions.The Ibiza also features Beats sound-system and an 8-inch touchscreen representing SEAT’s commitment to infotainment. The all-new SEAT Ibiza is easily recognisable as a genuine SEAT design due to its Full LED triangular headlights.The all-new SEAT Ibiza will be available in a choice of a 1.0 MPI 75 hp petrol engine and 1.0 and 1.5 TSI engines across 75hp, 95hp, 115hp and 150hp.In terms of diesel engines the Ibiza will be available in 1.6TDI 80hp and 95hp. The all-new SEAT Ibiza is available in four trim levels; S, SE, Xcellence and FR. To find out more about the all-new SEAT Ibiza, call into DMG Motors or contact the team on (074) 972 1396 or see more at seat.ie/ibizaDMG Motors showcase All-New SEAT Ibiza in Donegal was last modified: June 23rd, 2017 by Rachel McLaughlinShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:2017 Joule Donegal International RallycarsDMG MOTORSmotoringseat ibizaShowroomlast_img read more

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Let’s get visual: Shopping from within images

By on December 15, 2019

first_img HomeDigital MarketingLet’s get visual: Shopping from within images A little over a year ago, I published an article on the importance of data feeds as influencers of future search:Structured data feeds front-load the search engine results pages (SERPs) with user-rich information, creating a new search experience for more personalized, localized and actionable results.Fast forward to today, and we’re seeing innovation in visual shopping experiences using AI to identify an element within an image and show you similar images, similar products and where you can buy said products. From movies to local business listings and voice search results, structured data — both on websites and in data feeds — is playing a central role in moving search forward.The search engines and retailers continue to pursue newer, better — more structured — ways to communicate and for consumers to take action. This includes the transformation of image search into a visual search which takes shopping to a new level, as searchers can now use images as query inputs. It’s a win-win — searchers can easily shop related images, and retailers can reach even more customers through the ease of shopping feeds and structured data.How visual search works for shoppingHave you ever looked at a picture, magazine ad or celebrity photo and wondered how you could find out more about a particular item? With visual image search, you can search, browse, and then discover where to purchase products within a few short clicks. Here’s how:In the example below, a Bing search has been conducted for “Oscar dresses,” and the searcher has clicked on the “Images” tab. There, the searcher can browse through the images; if the store icon appears in the top left corner of the image, it’s signaling that a retailer sells this particular item. (Note: this functionality is specific to Bing, my employer, at the moment.)After clicking on an image, the searcher is able to view an assortment of related products or images. The product details are pulled from a variety of sources, ranging from the structured HTML on the page to shopping feeds. From here, users can shop similar items without leaving the image results page.Searchers can then click on the store listing, which will direct them to retailer sites where they can make purchases.Searchers can also zoom in on pictures to search particular sections of a photo. For instance, let’s say I fall in love with the belt on Brie Larsen’s Oscar dress. I click on the photo in search results, then click the search icon within the photo. This allows me to adjust the search box to zoom in on the desired area. From there, it refines the results of similar products and images.The results return a wide array of related images, which I can then further browse or shop.My examples above are clothing-based because I love to peruse the web for what to wear; however, the ability to home in on an element within an image to find that product or similar products is endless. There are numerous opportunities for retailers to have their products appear and shine within image search results, whether in fashion, babies and children, automotive, gardening, home decor, outdoor activities or sports.[Read the full article on Search Engine Land.]From our sponsors: Let’s get visual: Shopping from within images Related postsThe California Consumer Privacy Act goes live in a few short weeks — Are you ready?14th December 2019Lytics now integrates with Google Marketing Platform to enable customer data-informed campaigns14th December 2019ML 2019121313th December 2019Global email benchmark report finds email isn’t dead – it’s essential13th December 20192019 benchmark report: brand vs. non-brand traffic in Google Shopping12th December 2019Keep your LinkedIn advertising strategy focused in 202012th December 2019 Posted on 13th May 2017Digital Marketing FacebookshareTwittertweetGoogle+share Let’s get visual: Shopping from within imagesYou are here:last_img read more

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Bronze Age plague wasn’t spread by fleas

By on December 1, 2019

first_imgWhen the plague swept through Europe in 1665, no one could figure out how the devastating disease spread. But after a tailor in the small village of Eyam in central England died that September, people eventually put two and two together. He had received a parcel of cloth infested with fleas just 4 days before dying of bubonic plague. Within a month, five other villagers had succumbed, and the local vicar convinced the town to voluntarily put itself under quarantine. It eventually became clear that it was fleas, probably on rats, that spread the plague so far and so quickly.But now it appears that the plague did not always infect fleas—and the disease may not have always spread so rapidly or been as devastating. A new study of ancient DNA from the teeth of 101 Bronze Age skeletons has found that seven people living 2800 to 5000 years ago in Europe and Asia were infected with Yersinia pestis, the bacteria that causes the plague. But their strains of Y. pestis were missing a gene that allowed it to infect fleas, according to the study published today in Cell. This pushes back the earliest evidence of the plague by almost 3300 years and offers a key clue about how this disease became so contagious. “It’s really cool that they can pinpoint the acquisition of key genes that allow the movement of this bacteria into fleas,” says evolutionary geneticist Hendrik Poinar of McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada, who was not involved with the study.The plague has caused death and destruction in Europe at least since Roman times, launching at least three major pandemics that changed the course of history—the Plague of Justinian from 541 to 544, which weakened the Byzantine Empire; the Black Death, which killed almost half the population of Europe between 1347 and 1351; and the Great Plague of 1665, which lasted more than 30 years. Ancient DNA researchers have shown in recent years that Y. pestis caused all three of those pandemics. But until now, they were unable to determine whether Y. pestis caused reported plagues 2224 years ago in China and almost 2500 years ago in Greece. They suspected that ancient versions of the plague were not as devastatingly rapid in spread, but they could not test that idea because they lacked samples of the earlier pathogens.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Now, an international team of ancient DNA researchers and archaeologists has solved the mystery almost by accident after sequencing the genomes of 101 Bronze Age skeletons from Europe and Asia. The team started out by trying to pinpoint the origins and migrations of early Europeans. DNA samples revealed that a group of nomadic herders, the Yamnaya, swept into Europe from the plains of today’s Russia and Ukraine sometime between 5000 and 4800 years ago, bringing their culture and, perhaps, the Proto-Indo-European language with them. But archaeologist Kristian Kristiansen of the University of Gothenberg in Sweden wondered whether they also brought disease—and suggested that researchers test the DNA of Bronze Age humans in Europe and Asia to find out.The team, led by evolutionary biologist Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen, screened 89 billion short segments of DNA from the teeth of 101 individuals. The raw data included DNA from bacteria in the teeth, usually considered “old waste data,” says Willerslev, because it can contaminate the human DNA samples. They detected Y. pestis in seven people, ranging from Bronze Age skeletons that dated back as early as 4800 years ago in Russia, Estonia, and Poland, to an Iron Age individual who lived almost 3000 years ago in Armenia.When they sequenced the complete genomes of the Y. pestis DNA in those seven individuals, the team found that the bacterial genomes from the earliest samples lacked two genes that helped Y. pestis evade the immune systems of humans and fleas during the Black Death. In particular, the Y. pestis in the earliest Bronze Age individuals lacked a gene called Yersinia murine toxin, which protects the bacterium from a toxin inside the gut of fleas. So although these Bronze Age people suffered from the plague, they probably got it from airborne droplets, contaminated food, or the transmission of bodily fluids, rather than from fleas that infested rodents, as did Europeans during the Black Death and other pandemics.Using the same samples, the team also traced the evolution of Y. pestis and confirmed that it evolved from a soil bacteria closely related to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, a bacterium that causes Far East scarletlike fever in humans, and is most often spread through food. The two bacterial lineages diverged about 55,000 years ago. That date has large margins of error, but suggests that Y. pestis is much older than thought—previous estimates suggested it originated just 3300 years ago. But researchers now realize that it probably wasn’t until the end of the Bronze Age that the bacteria evolved from a less virulent species that may have spread more like the flu, tuberculosis, or AIDS than the bubonic plague, which is transmitted through flea bites to the skin.“This suggests that it was quite a different disease in the Bronze Age from what it was in medieval times,” says Johannes Krause, a paleogeneticist at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, who was not involved with the study. Poinar agrees that the most exciting part of the paper is that it solves a longstanding mystery about how the bubonic plague was able to spread so rapidly in the Middle Ages. He says: “The whole flea-rodent ecology of plague is what led to major pandemics of the bubonic form of the plague in Europe.”Plague might have been devastating back in the Bronze Age, too. Researchers speculate that if invading armies from the Russian steppe brought plague with them into Europe—even if it didn’t spread by fleas—it could have wiped out small bands of European farmers and made their territory vulnerable to invasion, much as Spanish conquistadors infected Native Americans with smallpox. And the plague was just one of the armory of devastating diseases that shaped the course of human history. “The most important take-home message is now we can do this for all kinds of diseases,” Willerslev says.last_img read more

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