May 14 2018Cancer researchers at the University of Bath have measured systematically how efficient molecules are at suppressing the activity of a protein associated with prostate and other cancers. The molecules could eventually be developed into new anti-cancer drugs.The research team from the Departments of Pharmacy & Pharmacology and Chemistry are studying a protein called α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) as a potential target for cancer treatments. Levels of AMACR protein and activity are increased by ~10-fold in all prostate cancers. Reducing these levels using genetic techniques makes the cancer cells less aggressive, and their behaviour becomes more like normal cells.Until relatively recently finding molecules that could target and inhibit AMACR has been challenging because it’s been difficult to accurately measure activity levels of the protein. However, after designing a simple colour-change test which can do precisely that, the University of Bath team were able to start analysing how the structure of promising molecules affects the activity of AMACR.The team systematically varied the design of drug molecules in order to identify which parts of the molecule are important for effectiveness against AMACR.In particular they confirmed that the ‘oiliness’ of a molecule is directly related to its potency – oily regions of the drug molecule, which exclude water, can stick to their targets more easily – although this had been predicted, the University of Bath experiments confirm it for the first time.The information from the tests will help the team move towards more promising anti-cancer drugs. Their next steps will be to use the information to design rationally even more potent molecules for testing against AMACR.The research is published in the journal Bioorganic Chemistry.Related StoriesUsing machine learning algorithm to accurately diagnose breast cancerResearchers use AI to develop early gastric cancer endoscopic diagnosis systemResearchers identify potential drug target for multiple cancer typesLead author Dr Matthew Lloyd said: “This is a small but important step in the development of new treatments for prostate cancer based on AMACR inhibition. It’s important because it provides a framework with which to predict and measure drug effectiveness. This will facilitate the development of new treatments for prostate cancer and other cancers in which AMACR levels are increased.”The test that we’ve developed at Bath makes this sort of work possible and will now allow us to continue to work towards new anti-cancer drugs.”The study was funded by Prostate Cancer UK with support from the Movember Foundation as part of their initiative to develop new treatments for prostate cancer.Dr Matthew Hobbs, Deputy Director of Research at Prostate Cancer UK, said: “Over 11,000 men die from prostate cancer every year in the UK, making it the third biggest cancer killer. In these men prostate cancer cells grow and evolve and eventually become resistant to the treatments currently available to combat the disease. However, important research like this which seeks to find new, innovative ways to treat prostate cancer has the potential to stop this trend.”It’s thanks to the funds raised by supporters of Prostate Cancer UK and the Movember Foundation that this research is possible.”In the United Kingdom, prostate cancer is the most common male-specific cancer with 47,151 new diagnoses reported in 2015 and 11,287 deaths in 2014. It accounts for 26% of all cancers diagnosed in men, with one in eight men being diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. Although 84% of men will survive for at least 10 years with the disease, new treatments are urgently needed especially for those men diagnosed with more advanced disease.Source: http://www.bath.ac.uk/
Improving the way we select patients for cancer screening and prevention programs, and identifying those people at higher risk of developing cancer is crucial to improving survival rates. This tool will help to increase awareness of genetic abnormalities that people may have been born with that increase their risk of developing cancer, and will encourage more people to consider pursuing genetic testing. The more we know about a person’s risk of developing cancer, the more we can do to try and detect it earlier or prevent it from occurring at all through the use drugs or surgery. Optimizing prevention measures in this group of women is crucial in reducing the rate of deaths from cancer and I believe risk tools such as this will have a significant impact on public health.” Dr Jonathan Krell, Senior Clinical Lecturer in Medical Oncology at Imperial College, said: BRCA has come from my great-grandfather’s side of the family. He had five sisters; two died of breast cancer and three died of ovarian cancer. I’m almost now a voice for those women who came before me in my family who had no idea of the mutation they carried that put them at risk of these cancers” said Laura. “There is not one minute where I question my decision to get tested. It meant I was able to get regular checks. It was very tough to find out about the mutation at age 26, but it allowed me to make choices about my body. We have to remember that knowledge is power.” Jun 13 2018Ovarian Cancer Action launches its Hereditary Cancer Risk Tool: ovarian.org.uk/risktoolAround 15% of ovarian cancer cases are linked to genetic mutations such as BRCA1, BRCA2 and Lynch Syndrome, which increase an individual’s likelihood of developing ovarian and other cancers. This equates to over 1,000 women a year in the UK whose lives could potentially be saved.Ovarian Cancer Action has developed its Hereditary Cancer Risk Tool to help people identify their cancer risk. The charity believes everyone has the right to understand if their family history puts them at risk of ovarian and other cancers, as well as the risk-reducing options available.The tool asks a series of questions regarding an individual’s familial history of cancer and compares answers to the national testing eligibility guidelines. It then, if necessary, clearly explains next steps should an individual choose to pursue testing on the NHS, and reminds every user of the importance of symptoms awareness regardless of their genetic status.The new tool makes a timely arrival following Theresa May’s ambitious announcement just a few weeks ago, calling on the NHS, Artificial Intelligence sector and health charities to work together to prevent 22,000 deaths each year by 2033. The Prime Minister focused the grand challenge on four cancers commonly diagnosed at a late stage, including ovarian cancer.Genetic mutations can be passed down through the male or female line to future generations. The general population has a 1 in 400 to 1 in 800 chance of having a BRCA gene mutation. This increases to 1 in 40 in those with Jewish heritage.When primary school teacher Laura Moses, 28, from London, found out she carried the BRCA1 gene mutation, she was able to trace it back through generations of her family history. Just one year later she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. She now blogs about her experience at findingcyril.com.Laura, said: Every time a person with a genetic mutation is diagnosed with ovarian cancer, it represents a cancer prevention failure. Along with genetic counselors, we want to ensure individuals can make informed decisions around surveillance, preventative surgeries and its considerations, such as family planning. Genetic testing is one of our strongest weapons in the fight against this disease. To understand your risk of hereditary cancer, visit ovarian.org.uk/risktool. All you need is a few minutes and some information about your family history of cancer; it could change your life.” Joanne Stanford, Hereditary Cancer Specialist at Ovarian Cancer Action and co-creator of the Hereditary Cancer Risk Tool, said: Source:https://ovarian.org.uk/
Source:https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/ Aug 22 2018Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (also known as CPE) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be the most commonly reported organisms with critical resistances to antimicrobials across Australia, according to a national report released today.The latest six-monthly report for the National Alert System for Critical Antimicrobial Resistance (CARAlert) system, released by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (the Commission), highlights the continuing threat of antimicrobial resistance by dangerous bacteria.“Knowing which new bacteria are emerging as potential threats allows us to take the initiative in the fight against antimicrobial resistance,” said the Commission’s Senior Medical Advisor for the AURA Surveillance System, Professor John Turnidge.“The finding that CPE remains prevalent in Australian hospitals is concerning. This group of bacteria has the ability to cause common infections, has limited treatment options, and can have a death rate as high as 50% for blood stream infections.”“These bacteria do not discriminate. The latest report shows that few age groups are spared, including our youngest Australians, children aged up to four years.“As CPE are becoming commonplace across various hospital settings in Australia, clinicians need to be aware of the patient populations at risk to limit spread to other patients. Should infection occur, they should seek specialist advice to deliver appropriate treatments.”The continued volume of CPE reports (255 in the six months to 31 March 2018) highlights the importance of effective infection prevention and control to help combat the threat of antimicrobial resistance.The Commission has published guidelines to help acute health facilities control the further spread of this infection and has strengthened efforts to improve and reduce antimicrobial use, for example through antimicrobial stewardship programs in healthcare settings.Outside of the hospital environment, another key finding of the latest CARAlert report relates to the continued high number of alerts for resistance in N. gonorrhoeae, a bacterial sexually transmitted infection.For the first time, two extensively drug resistant (XDR) N. gonorrhoeae infections have been reported in Australia, following a report in the United Kingdom of a similar strain. These infections are unable to be treated with the recommended treatments of ceftriaxone and azithromycin. A further five strains have high-level azithromycin resistance alone.Related StoriesCurved shape of bacteria can make it easier to find foodNew research could help design algae that produces fuels and cleanup chemicalsRaw meat can act as reservoir for bacteria associated with hospital infectionsThe detection of these strains is concerning because of the potential for N. gonorrhoea to cause a community outbreak of sexually transmitted infections. While reports of low-level resistance to azithromycin in N. gonorrhoeae have decreased by 26% since the last six-monthly report, they still account for more than one third (38%) of all CARAlerts.“To prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), either to yourself or others, it is best to practice safe sex. Safe sex includes using a condom or dental dam to ensure that you do not pass an infection on to your partner,” said Professor Turnidge.The report also indicates an increase in the multi-drug resistant Shigella species – an infection associated with food-borne illness, particularly in people returning from overseas travel in developing countries.“Clinicians in the community should be aware of risk factors for highly resistant community infections including overseas travel,” Professor Turnidge added.The CARAlert system was established by the Commission in 2016 to monitor and report on cases of bacteria resistant to critically important antimicrobials which are considered to be a serious threat to the effectiveness of last-line antimicrobial agents.In total, 653 CARs were reported by 58 participating laboratories between October 2017 and 31 March 2018, a number similar to the same period in the previous year (October 2016 to March 2017). Forty-eight percent of CARs were detected from patients attending hospitals.At least one strain of bacteria with some type of critical antimicrobial resistance was reported from each state and territory, with the three most populous states accounting for 87% of all CARs: New South Wales (32%), Victoria (34%) and Queensland (21%). The lowest numbers of CARs were reported from Tasmania (5), the Northern Territory (4) and South Australia (1).“The Commission is collaborating with states and territories to establish a network to coordinate responses to outbreaks of resistant organisms in Australia. The timely data that CARAlert provides is a key resource to inform these responses,” said Professor Turnidge.
Related StoriesStudy finds lower risk of Type 1 diabetes in children vaccinated against ‘stomach flu’ virusAntibiotics can wipe out early flu resistance, study findsWomen’s greater immune response to flu vaccine declines with ageAccording to the agreements and rules established by the World Health Organization, when there is a potential for a flu threat, the countries share viral samples “in a timely manner” within a few months. This helps prevent spread and also helps control outbreaks.In this case, China has failed to share the samples of the virus for over a year now. The US government officials including those at the Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) have been persistently requesting for the samples.According to health officials there are conflicts between the countries regarding trade agreements and this would only worsen the sharing and agreements regarding medical related matters.Experts have reiterated that no country owns the viral samples just like they do not own the skies or nature said Andrew C. Weber, who was part of the biological defense programs at the Pentagon. Many have labelled this attitude as “scandalous” and have said that many people might die needlessly if China continues to maintain this stand.H7N9 is a form of avian or bird flu that emerged in China in 2013 and there have been related epidemics all over Asia annually since then. Around 1,565 individuals have been affected in 2013. Last outbreak, seen in October 2016 to September 2017 infected 766 cases.The spread as of now is not rapid between persons and most of the infected are those that handle poultry. However the virus is capable of killing around 39 percent of those it infects. This makes the virus deadly.The virus, like other flu viruses, can mutate and change rapidly to avoid detection and treatment and possible vaccination. These properties make the virus likely to infect large number of individuals causing a pandemic.Rick A. Bright, the director of Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority has said, “Pandemic influenza spreads faster than anything else. There’s nothing to hold it back or slow it down. Every minute counts.” This organization within the Department of Health and Human Services works on vaccine development. By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDAug 29 2018The United States researchers and health experts have expressed outrage and concern over Chinese government’s policy to withhold the samples of the rapidly evolving bird flu virus H7N9.This new strain of the bird flu virus is said to be deadly and the US labs need the samples to study the virus to be able to develop treatment and vaccines against it. If timely development of the medications and vaccines fails, the spread of the virus could cause pandemics, explain the health advocates. Image Credit: Campre
Abortion , Clarence Thomas , Eugenics While he was at it, Justice Thomas took some pot-shots at disparate impact liability, which he equated with eugenics. (Really!) pic.twitter.com/DIoHydE9nI— Sasha Samberg-Champion (@ssamcham) May 28, 2019The “provision of an Indiana law which said the state may prohibit abortions motivated solely by race, sex or disability should remain blocked,” CNN reported about the ruling. “The court, however, did say it would allow part of the law that requires clinics to bury or cremate fetal remains to take effect.”But Thomas, in a 20-page statement, seemed to hint that the Supreme Court had unfinished business with the case.READ MORE: Clarence Thomas Dissents In ‘Racist’ Census SCOTUS Ruling“The Court’s decision to allow further percolation should not be interpreted as agreement,” Thomas wrote in part before continuing. “Enshrining a constitutional right to an abortion based solely on the race, sex, or disability of an unborn child, as Planned Parenthood advocates, would constitutionalize the views of the 20th-century eugenics movement.” The Nature journal described “eugenics” in part as a movement that promoted “selective breeding for positive traits. In contrast, the eugenics movement in the US quickly focused on eliminating negative traits. Not surprisingly, ‘undesirable’ traits were concentrated in poor, uneducated, and minority populations. In an attempt to prevent these groups from propagating, eugenicists helped drive legislation for their forced sterilization (Norrgard 2008). The first state to enact a sterilization law was Indiana in 1907.”Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg slammed Thomas’ dissenting opinion as well as his choice of language in writing it, according to Mediaite.“(A) woman who exercises her constitutionally protected right to terminate a pregnancy is not a ‘mother,’” Ginsburg said before adding that “the cost of, and trauma potentially induced by, a post-procedure requirement may well constitute an undue burden.” So, according to Justice Thomas, a law/reg which appears neutral but has massive disparate impact on racial lines is fine because to do anything else is eugenics? I don’t quite understand this argument. It’s as if the result for racial minorities doesn’t matter. Ok, I get it now.— Bobert (@bobertAH09) May 28, 2019Indiana’s abortion law “requires doctors to inform women that “Indiana does not allow a fetus to be aborted solely because of the fetus’s race, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, or diagnosis or potential diagnosis of the fetus having Down syndrome or any other disability,’” the Washington Post reminded readers Tuesday. “Abortion rights groups have argued that the procedures do not center around eugenics, but are rather guarded under a woman’s right to choose as to whether to carry out her pregnancy,” the Hill wrote Tuesday after Thomas delivered his statement. “They say that mothers whose fetuses would not survive in the womb or after birth, or whose pregnancy would risk their own health, should have the right to terminate a pregnancy.” The Blackest Reactions To The Brett Kavanaugh Supreme Court Melodrama Well, Justice Thomas today in his crazy dissent about abortion and eugenics trotted out one of those anti-abortion myths, citing the esteemed George Will. pic.twitter.com/ilrb0sn02b— David S. Cohen (@dsc250) May 28, 2019 SEE ALSO:Hannah Payne Murder Case Moves Forward For Killing Kenneth HerringWatch A Black Man Save His Life While A White Cop Has A Gun In His Face The Supreme Court refused to rule Tuesday on the most contentious part of a highly restrictive abortion law in Indiana. But that didn’t stop Justice Clarence Thomas from going on an anti-abortion rant that critics said was embellishment and delivered under false pretenses. The only Black member of the nation’s highest court proceeded to equate birth control measures with elements of racism, or eugenics, in what many social media users characterized as a “misguided” bastardization of the truth. good morning to everyone except justice thomas who thinks DI is akin to eugenics pic.twitter.com/oT5kaTP43p— Joshua Erlich (@JoshuaErlich) May 28, 2019Thomas and the Supreme Court weighed in on the matter as a series of restrictive abortion laws have been going into effect across Republican-led states. The most recent was in Alabama, where doctors can be sentenced to up to 99 years in prison for performing an abortion.The wave of anti-abortion laws and proposed legislation has also been widely seen as a swipe against Black women.“Black women know that whenever you criminalize abortion, then it’s Black women who are going to be locked up,” Georgia state Rep. Renitta Shannon told Rolling Stone for an article published May 3. “Whenever you don’t cover abortions through insurance, it’s young Black women who are going to suffer — we’re the majority of the minimum-wage earners. All this stuff is connected.” AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to MoreAddThisMoreShare to EmailEmailEmail
Opium was one of the most important resources of the 19th century. It had medicinal and recreational value and most importantly, it was in hot, hot demand by those who enjoyed the illicit effects. Merchants knew the value of opium ever since the 7th century, and while many rulers and leaders attempted to suppress the sale and purchase of the drug, there was money to be made in the opium trading business. China had outlawed the opium trade on their land, under the orders of the Emperor who believed that the drug would ultimately be harmful to the population. Yet, in spite of this ban, the trade continued with countries like Britain smuggling Indian opium into China as a means of making money.For a while, the British held a strong monopoly on the trade, but there was still room for the independent merchant to get his hands on a supply and make his own fortunes. One such man was John Jacob Astor, a German-American who would become America’s first multi-millionaire.John Jacob Astor.Astor had immigrated to America after the Revolutionary War was over and the United States had declared their independence. With a new country full of business opportunity, he quickly found a market in the fur trade, making quite the fortune.As he amassed wealth, trading furs between Canada and America, he encountered a few roadblocks that would prevent him from gaining enough to claim the title of millionaire. One such roadblock was the political tensions between the United States and Britain, which led to an embargo that prevented him from trading with Canada any further. To compound the problem, when the war of 1812 broke out, British soldiers took control of his trading posts, causing him to suffer financially.John Jacob Astor (Financier), signed check.It was these pressures that caused Astor to turn his attention to trade elsewhere, namely, the opium trade in China. The Chinese didn’t particularly have any demands for American exports or even fur, but Astor knew that despite the illegality, opium was still in popular demand.Storage of opium at a British East India Company warehouse.Smuggling opium into Canton, a major Chinese port city, wasn’t a difficult or risky endeavor. Despite the Chinese government’s attempts to prevent the people from accessing opium, they didn’t have the resources or the manpower to fully lock down the ports.Painting of John Jacob Astor.Chinese smugglers would aid merchants by sending out small boats to accept shipments and then would handle the rest on land. All a wealthy merchant needed to do was to obtain the stock and sail it to Canton.18 Old English insults we need to bring backCan of Waldorf-Astoria Cigarettes. Photo by Medvedev CC BY SA 3.0And that is exactly what John Jacob Astor did to make his fortune. Unable to obtain the good stuff — Indian opium, thanks to a British monopoly — he settled for Turkish opium. Turkish opium wasn’t a bad product, but it wasn’t as popular as the Indian variety.Apothecary vessel for storage of opium as a pharmaceutical, Germany, 18th or 19th-century. Photo by Bullenwachter CC BY SA 3.0However, there was still a market value for Turkish opium, primarily because opium dealers would cut the Indian opium with Turkish, as a way to increase their supply of the more expensive of the two drugs.John Jacob Astor, engraving.With ten tons of Turkish opium in tow, Astor sent the opium to China, trading it for goods. During this time period, China only accepted silver as currency from foreigners, but silver was hard to come by. However, most Chinese merchants would also take opium as currency as well, enabling Astor to purchase Chinese goods with opium.John Jacob Astor IV (1864-1912) and fiancee Madeleine Talmage Force (1893-1940) in a launch going to the Astor yacht Noma.He would then take those goods and resell them for a fortune in the United States. While his actions were certainly on the illegal and immoral side, the opium trade was lucrative for Astor and he was able to continue growing his fortune.John Jacob Astor, 1864-1912, in automobile.John Jacob Astor would continue working in the opium trade for three years but chose to exit the market in 1819.Read another story from us: Queen Victoria sent chocolates to soldiers in the Boer War, one gift was preserved, uneaten, up to todayWith Congress having passed a law that would prevent foreign fur traders from entering the United States, his American Fur Company quickly came to dominate the fur market. Over time, he would become America’s first multi-millionaire, with a net worth of over $20 million in his lifetime. Adjusted for inflation, the buying power of his net worth today would be somewhere to the tune of $110 billion. Andrew Pourciaux is a novelist hailing from sunny Sarasota, Florida, where he spends the majority of his time writing and podcasting.
The late 19th century in the United States has been called “The Gilded Age.” The Civil War had ended, the American Industrial Revolution was in full swing, new incredibly abundant resources were being found, millionaires were being made seemingly overnight, and a new group was emerging – the American Middle Class. In New England, the Eastern Seaboard, and parts of the West, larger and larger numbers of people were escaping poverty. As people became more prosperous and labor laws began to change which gave people more “free time” or “leisure time” (two new terms at the time), industries arose which catered to the leisure activities that Americans were becoming interested in.One of these interests was boating for pleasure, and in Troy, New York, a father and son developed new types of canoes and other pleasure craft, which for a time were the most popular boats in the country – and they made the pair rich. These boats were made mostly of… paper.Troy, as viewed from across the Hudson River looking east, c. 1909.In the early 1800s a hard-working Vermonter named Elisha Waters moved to Troy and after a period of apprenticeship, opened his own pharmaceutical company. Mr. Waters made enough money to begin another business, that of box manufacturing. At the time, Troy was one of the richest and most industrial small cities in the country, and local industries and retailers needed boxes for shipment and delivery. Elisha Waters soon became quite rich.It’s hard to believe now, but in the 19th century, mass production of paper from wood pulp was a relatively new thing. Previously, sheets of paper had been made by hand — a laborious and expensive proposition. That expense was passed on to the consumer – one reason why students in most schools used to write on “slates,” not paper. Until the mid-1800s, paper was made from linen or cotton rag, but in the 1850s, inventors/chemists had developed a way to free the cellulose from wood and produce it in rolls. The Gilded Age was sometimes known as “The Age of Paper.”Canoe made from paper, France, illustration by Tilly from L’Illustration, Journal Universel, No 2272, Volume LXXXVIII, September 11, 1886.One day in the late 1860s, Waters’ teenage son George was invited to a masquerade party, but the mask he wanted (an over-sized head) was out of his price range (George being given an allowance by his prosperous father, not an expense account). Suddenly George had an idea – he talked his way into borrowing the mask for a few hours, took it home, and cleverly used it as a mold for his own paper copy, which was made from layer upon layer of thick paper made hard with a combination varnish/glue. This gave him another idea, which would make both he and his father very wealthy.George, like many other upper-class boys of the time, was involved in competitive rowing. His boat was a cast-off from a famous rower, but it had developed leaks. Fresh off his success in creating his mask with hardened paper, he used the same method to patch the holes and cracks in his boat. To his amazement, when he put the boat in water – no leaks.Competitive rowing.Fresh off that success, George went to his father with his idea. Soon, the pair were manufacturing canoes, competitive row-boats and eventually, large pleasure craft, including one model which had a seventeen passenger/six rower capacity and was forty-five feet long. The best part was that the Waters’ owned the patent for “paper boats.” By the late 1870s, father and son were quite rich.The process of making the boats was relatively simple. The Waters’ built both custom-made and mass-produced boats. The manufacturing process was essentially the same for all of the boats, however. First, a wooden frame would be made. The frame had grooves in it for a wooden keel to be fastened later, as well as grooves/spaces for the gunwales (the top edges of the hull). The frame would be placed on a building platform upside-down, and so-called “tacking strips” would be attached to the bottom (really the top) for a time – this enabled the paper to be stretched over and fastened to the mold. Enthusiasts Made A House Boat Of 100% Recycled CardboardFor most of the boats, the competitive rowing boats known as “racing shells,” the Waters’ used more expensive but high-quality manila paper, which was made from Manila hemp. Layer upon layer would be added, each of them one piece running down both the length and width of the frame, alternately. The very first sheet of paper would be slightly damp to mold exactly to the frame. Then it would be given a coat of adhesive, and another layer of paper added.Manila hemp drying on a bamboo pole.Then it would be moved to a heated room to dry. Once dry, the shell would be removed from the mold for finishing. The frame was left behind, and the keel and gunwales added. Then the father and son used a patented and secret water-proofing mixture to make their craft watertight, added a hardened paper deck and put in the proper hardware – such as oar-locks, etc. When the rowing shell was finished, it was only a foot wide, and was much much lighter than an equivalent wooden shell. The hull of this craft measured anywhere from 1/8 to 1/10 inch thick.The light weight of the craft resulted in both increased speed and portability. Within a short time the boats were accepted by competitive rowing clubs and college teams. Amateur canoeists and adventurers were soon ordering boats, and Waters & Sons (the official name of the firm) was getting free “PR” nation-wide. In 1872, one man endeavored to paddle the length of the Mississippi River in a Waters’ craft. He made it from Minnesota to St. Louis before he quit – not because of any problem with the boat, but because he was tired.RowingIn 1874, a man named Nathaniel Bishop ordered an 18-foot Waters’ craft which had a small sail, and places for two men to row. Bishop and a companion traveled from Troy via river and canal all the way to Cedar Key, Florida. He wrote a best-selling book titled The Voyage of the Paper Canoe about the journey.By the end of the century, Waters and Sons had branched out into other areas using their patented technology, which most successfully included the building of hardened, weather-proof paper domes on some of the new buildings going up throughout the Northeast and eastern Midwest. This included a dome atop the new observatory at West Point.Read another story from us: The Flying Dutchman – The ghostly ship doomed to sail the Seven Seas foreverUnfortunately, success didn’t last forever. In 1901, George Waters was building a racing-shell and while using a blow-torch, accidentally set fire to the entire factory. It was a total loss. Within three years, both father and son died, and with them, Waters’ Paper Boats. Obviously, over time most recreational boats were (and are) made from fiberglass and other stronger and lighter materials.Matthew Gaskill holds an MA in European History and writes on a variety of topics from the Medieval World to WWII to genealogy and more. A former educator, he values curiosity and diligent research. He is the author of many best-selling Kindle works on Amazon.
Efforts to improve student success highlighted at NPC board meeting By Diana Hutchison The Navajo County Community College District Governing Board held its regular monthly meeting on Tuesday, May 15. Among the agenda items were awarding Outstanding Alumnus for the Spring 2018, the annualSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Ad May 21, 2018
Advertising Telangana Assembly elections: KCR focus on Congress seats pays off Related News Advertising FRO C Anita tried to save herself by climbing onto a tractor but videos of the incident showed the crowd, including Rao, following her and assaulting her with a stick, hitting her several times on the head. Anita fell unconscious and was rushed to hospital, where she was diagnosed with a hairline fracture in her right wrist.P Malla Reddy told The Indian Express that several cases have been registered against Rao. “We have arrested him and Bora Posham (seen in the video) who beat up the FRO with sticks and also 14 villagers who participated in the attack. We have booked them under unbailable sections of the IPC.”After Chief Minister K Chandrashekar Rao expressed his displeasure to Konappa over his brother’s behaviour, Rao resigned as vice-chairman of the Komaram Bheem Asifabad zilla parishad. Best Of Express Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 Speaking to The Indian Express from hospital, Anita, who was in shock and broke down, said, “I was singled out by four-five men, including Krishna Rao, and beaten up with sticks. It was a vicious attack, I got very scared.”The forest officials accused police, which arrived at the spot a few minutes after the attack began, of not doing anything to stop the mob.Read | Telangana forest officer assaulted: ‘MLA, brothers have history of assaulting government officials’Officials said that Anita, 32, had gone to Sarasala village which falls under the Sirpur constituency of MLA Konappa to plant saplings as part of the ‘Haritha Haaram’ plantation drive of the Telangana government. The plantation drive was undertaken to compensate for the loss of green cover due to the multi-purpose lift irrigation Kaleswaram Project. TDP will be rendered irrelevant after Lok Sabha polls: K T Rama Rao A team of 21 Forest Department personnel, including Anita, were plouging and planting saplings with the help of tractors on a reserve forest land identified on the outskirts of the village, when some people objected. The villagers claimed it was their land and attacked the officials with sticks and iron rods. Some of them called up Rao, who lives nearby and who soon arrived with his supporters.Principal Chief Conservator of Forests P K Jha ordered an inquiry and demanded that the state government provide police protection to forest officials on afforestation drives. “That is forest land where our staff was attacked. Even Sirpur MLA Koneru Konappa knew about our afforestation drive. I don’t know why he chose not to inform the people and his brother who attacked our staff. The Forest Department had thwarted several attempts to encroach this piece of land by villagers in the past five years,” Jha said.Divisional Forest Officer (Komaram Bheem Asifabad) Laxman Naik said, “Without even asking why forest officials were there, the villagers and Krishna Rao launched a brutal assault on them. Without even considering that the FRO is a woman, the men armed with stick and rods surrounded her and beat her up. The officials had gone there to plant saplings on forest land, it is government land.”Naik added that they had taken up afforestation in 20 hectares of land in connection with the Kaleswaram Project. “Koneru Krishna Rao and others arrived with the intention of illegally occupying the land, and attacked our staff.” C Anita trying to save herself by climbing atop a tractor as a crowd attacks her in Komaram Bheem Asifabad district. Krishna Rao is the man in white shirt second from right. (Express Photo)A woman Forest Range Officer (FRO) was hospitalised with a hairline fracture after she was beaten up by a group, allegedly including Koneru Krishna Rao, the brother of Telangana Rashtra Samiti (TRS) MLA Koneru Konappa, on Sunday morning, during a plantation drive in Komaram Bheem Asifabad district. Other forest staff who were part of the team were also beaten up. Local strongmen, Rao and brother Konappa have been accused of assaulting government officials earlier too, besides frequent run-ins with them. In March 2018, Excise Department officials in Kagaznagar-Sirpur had staged a demonstration after Konappa allegedly abused a woman excise circle inspector for confiscating a truck.Working President of TRS K T Rama Rao condemned the attack and said no one was above the law. “Atrocious behavious by Koneru Krishna who attacked a forest officer who was doing her job. I condemn it strongly,” KTR said.Anita is well regarded as a forest officer, and was felicitated two years ago by the department for her afforestation work in Chennur mandal. Her colleagues said she had handled several situations like Sunday’s and was known to never lose her cool. “When she was in Chennur, she handled many explosive situations where villagers cultivating illegally on forest land for decades confronted her during afforestation drives. She would talk to them calmly and explain why afforestation was necessary. In spite of heated arguments, she used to prevail upon them. I think today the situation became political and someone instigated the villagers,” Giasuddin, a former colleague of Anita, said.Anita’s husband C Manik Rao said he quit his job as an interior designer to take care of their son seeing Anita’s devotion to her work. “I understood she won’t be able to do justice to her passion and also take care of home. So I decided to quit my job and take care of our son and home while she pursues what she loves most,” Manik Rao said. Advertising P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies Chandrayaan-2 gets new launch date days after being called off More Explained Anita told The Indian Express she was determined to finish the plantation drive at Sarasala. “I will go back to that village and finish planting trees at the very spot where I was attacked. There is no question of backing out… In fact, I now take it up as a challenge. Let’s see who stops me now.” Written by Sreenivas Janyala | Hyderabad | Updated: July 1, 2019 9:43:05 am TRS drops protest plan in House, no-confidence motion likely to be taken up Taking stock of monsoon rain 1 Comment(s)
By Reuters |Seoul | Published: June 12, 2019 9:03:42 am Trump cancelled a subsequent trip by Pompeo set for August. In October, Pompeo made his fourth visit to North Korea in 2018 and hailed “significant progress”. A visit to the United States by Kim’s top envoy, Kim Yong Chol, initially scheduled for November, was postponed to January.North Korea freed a detained American in November in an apparent goodwill gesture.In February, Kim and Trump held their second summit, in Hanoi, which collapsed over the gulf between US demands for denuclearisation and North Korea’s for sanctions relief.Negotiations have since stalled, with North Korea setting a year-end deadline for the United States to show more flexibility.Inter-Korean tiesRelations between the two Koreas made rapid progress in 2018 with Kim and South Korean President Moon Jae-in holding three summits.They agreed to a military pact with measures to ease tension during the third meeting, in September. They have implemented some steps, halting major military exercises, establishing a no-fly zone along the border and removing landmines and guard posts in the Demilitarised Zone (DMZ). They also opened a liaison office in the North’s border city of Kaesong in September.But the standoff between the North and the United States this year has cast a chill over inter-Korean relations.North Korea snubbed a South Korean offer of follow-up action. The North briefly pulled out of the liaison office where planned weekly talks have not taken place since the failed North Korean-US summit in February.Military exercises In Singapore, Trump made a surprise announcement that the United States would suspend military drills with South Korea. Major exercises, which North Korea has long seen as a rehearsal for war, have been halted though smaller ones have continued.Serious about sanctionsThe Trump administration has intensified its enforcement of sanctions in line with a campaign of “maximum pressure” on the North.Last month, the United States announced for the first time it had seized a North Korean cargo ship, accusing it of illicit coal shipments in violation of US and U.N. sanctions. North Korea called it an illegal act that violated the spirit of the Singapore summit.Strict US interpretations of U.N. sanctions curtailing banking and shipping transactions with Pyongyang, as well as a travel ban for US citizens, have effectively shut North Korean operations by many relief groups.New missile testsIn May, North Korea twice tested multiple short-range missiles, which analysts said could be aimed at penetrating South Korea’s missile defence system.Trump said nobody was happy about the launches but left the door open for more talks, saying they were not a violation of the Singapore agreement. Best Of Express LiveKarnataka floor test: Will Kumaraswamy’s 14-month-old govt survive? Unbowed, Trump intensifies attacks on four Democratic congresswomen Related News Advertising Post Comment(s) More Explained Trump and Kim agreed in Singapore to work towards the complete denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula. Kim also vowed to permanently dismantle key missile facilities in the presence of international inspectors, South Korea’s President Moon Jae-in said after his third summit with Kim in September in the North Korean capital, Pyongyang.Moon also said Kim would take additional steps toward denuclearisation such as closing its main Yongbyon nuclear complex, if the United States took reciprocal measures.But none of those pledges has materialised, and US think tanks have pointed to activity at North Korea’s nuclear and missile sites, including the restoration of part of the rocket launch station that it had just begun to shut down.Kim’s summit diplomacyKim’s journey from international pariah to acceptance as a responsible head of state accelerated after the Singapore summit. He made two trips to China, for his third and fourth summits with President Xi Jinping. He also visited the eastern Russian city of Vladivostok last April to meet President Vladimir Putin. Advertising Kulbhushan Jadhav ‘guilty of crimes’, will proceed further as per law: Imran Khan US House rejects Saudi weapons sales; Trump to veto Hold the applause until Hafiz Saeed is convicted: US committee to Donald Trump In September, Kim hosted Moon for their third summit in 2018, in Pyongyang, which was partly aimed at facilitating Kim’s second encounter with Trump in February in the Vietnam’s capital, Hanoi.In Hanoi, Kim established a rapport with Vietnamese officials, as he did with Singapore officials when he visited there for the first summit with Trump.Stalemate in US tiesIn July, North Korea repatriated 55 boxes of what were believed to be the remains of US soldiers killed in the Korean War, a quick first step toward the Singapore pledge to forge “new relations”.But that same month, North Korea accused US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo of making “gangster-like” demands during a visit to Pyongyang. Progress has been made, such as the return of some remains of American soldiers killed during the 1950-53 Korean War. But even that has stalled since the second summit between Trump and Kim broke down in Vietnam in February.The two sides now appear as far apart as they were going into the Singapore summit.North Korea has conducted short-range missile tests and complained of US pressure, while the United States has doubled down on its enforcement of sanctions on North Korea. Here are some of the major events since Kim and Trump shook hands a year ago.Words but no action on denuclearisation Virat Kohli won’t have a say in choosing new coach Taking stock of monsoon rain Advertising South Korea also played down the tests, with Moon calling them a protest against the failed Vietnam summit and a sign the North wanted to negotiate. President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un at their meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam, Feb. 27, 2019. (The New York Times: Doug Mills)US President Donald Trump met North Korean leader Kim Jong Un for the first time at a historic summit in Singapore on June 12 last year and there have been ups and downs in the North’s foreign relations since then.
Advertising Her delegation is going to Haiti, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and St. Lucia on a 12-day trip. The island nations are among the few that recognize Taiwan instead of China.Tsai said that she wants to share the values of democracy and perseverance with Taiwan’s friends.“Our democracy has not come easily and now is facing the threat and technological penetration of foreign forces,” she said, in a veiled reference to China. Post Comment(s) Strike by Taiwan air attendants halts flights for thousands By AP |Taiwan | Published: July 11, 2019 4:27:14 pm FILE – Tsai Ing-wen (Billy H.C. Kwok/The New York Times)Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen departed Thursday for a four-country state visit to the Caribbean with stops in the United States on the way there and back. Taiwan president Tsai Ing-wen to visit US this month, angering China Tsai will also make what her government is calling “two-evening transit stops” in the United States.Taiwan does not have diplomatic ties with the United States, but the U.S. provides the self-governing island with military and other support. China objects to such support as an interference in what it considers its internal affairs.In the Caribbean, the delegation will promote sustainable development and look for business opportunities for Taiwanese companies, Tsai said.Taiwan split from China during a civil war that brought the Communist Party to power in 1949. The rival Nationalists set up a separate government in Taiwan, and Tsai has resisted Chinese pressure to re-unite the two. Taiwan confirms request for US tanks, air defence systems Advertising Related News
Related News Explained | Why the protests in Sudan might not end the country’s troublesThe deal has revived hopes for a peaceful transition of power in a country plagued by internal conflicts and years of economic crisis that helped trigger months of protests, which ended Omar al-Bashir’s 30-year rule in April.The agreement has yet to be finalised and signed.Read | Power-Sharing Deal in Sudan Took Shape at a Secret MeetingRelations between the military council that ousted Bashir in a coup and the Forces for Freedom and Change opposition alliance broke down when security forces killed dozens as they cleared a sit-in on June 3. But after huge protests against the military, African mediators brokered a return to direct talks, which led to the deal. The thwarted coup involved a number of retired officers, as well as officers still in service, Jamal Omar Ibrahim, the head of the Transitional Military Council’s security committee, said on Sudanese TV.He added that 12 had been arrested and four detained in connection with the thwarted coup.The military council and a coalition of opposition and protest groups agreed provisionally last week to share power for three years, bringing thousands onto the streets to hail a first step towards ending decades of dictatorship. Thousands demonstrate in Sudan to mark 40 days since deadly crackdown Relations between the military council that ousted Bashir in a coup and the Forces for Freedom and Change opposition alliance broke down when security forces killed dozens as they cleared a sit-in on June 3. (Bryan Denton/The New York Times)Sudan’s military rulers said on Thursday that several officers had attempted a coup in an effort to undermine an agreement between the military and the opposition to share power for three years ahead of elections. By Reuters |Khartoum | Published: July 12, 2019 7:41:52 am Advertising Sudanese man shot dead during protest as sides wrangle over transition Advertising Post Comment(s) Power-Sharing Deal in Sudan Took Shape at a Secret Meeting
Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Oct 16 2018Eisai Co., Ltd. has entered into an agreement to grant exclusive development and marketing rights for its anti-obesity agent lorcaserin hydrochloride (generic name, product name in the United States: BELVIQ, product name for once-daily formulation in the United States: BELVIQ XR, “lorcaserin”) in 17 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, excluding Brazil, to Eurofarma Laboratorios S.A. which has a business foundation in Latin America.Related StoriesNovel program in England’s third largest city helps reduce childhood obesitySupervised fun, exercise both improve psychosocial health of children with obesityResearchers find link between maternal obesity and childhood cancer in offspringUnder this agreement, Eisai will supply Eurofarma with lorcaserin. Eisai will receive a one-time contractual payment and is eligible for milestone payments for development and sales in each country.Lorcaserin is a novel chemical entity that is believed to decrease food consumption and promote satiety by selectively activating serotonin 2C receptors in the brain. Lorcaserin was approved in 2012 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity for chronic weight management in adult patients with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater (obese) or 27 kg/m2 or greater (overweight) in the presence of at least one weight-related co-morbid condition, and was launched in the United States in June 2013. Lorcaserin was approved in Mexico and Brazil with the same indication as for the United States in July 2016 and December 2016, respectively.By entering into this agreement with Eurofarma, which has a strong business foundation throughout the region, Eisai aims to continue its effort to make lorcaserin widely available to appropriate patients as soon as possible. Source:https://www.eisai.com/news/2018/news201884.html
Source:Hypertonic saline may help babies with cystic fibrosis breathe better. EurekAlert. 9th November 2018. The researchers pointed out that the study was limited by the absence of a true placebo arm, since isotonic saline itself could have produced clinical benefit.The relatively short follow-up period of 12 months is another limitation, making it impossible to establish the long-term benefit of treatment with hypertonic saline.However, the study has opened up a potentially important intervention approach at the point of diagnosis of CF.The tested therapy couples simplicity with safety while improving the lung function and overall health of these infants. The study, titled Preventive Inhalation of Hypertonic Saline in Infants with Cystic Fibrosis (PRESIS): A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Study, was published on November 9, 2018, in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Treatment with hypertonic saline in infants with CF is safe from diagnosis onwards, and our results suggest this preventive therapy benefits lung function and improves thriving.”Dr. Mirjam Stahl, Lead Author We demonstrated that early studies are feasible in this challenging age group using innovative, sensitive outcome parameters such as lung clearance index.”Dr. Mirjam Stahl, Lead Author By Dr. Liji Thomas, MDNov 9 2018Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)The first-ever randomized controlled trial on babies with cystic fibrosis (CF) has found that treatment with inhaled hypertonic saline can improve breathing and lung health.Evgeny Atamanenko | ShutterstockThe study involved 40 babies, enrolled at a mean age of three months. The babies were randomly assigned to hypertonic saline (6.8% saline) or isotonic saline (1.9%), and followed up for 12 months.Older studies using mice models revealed that hypertonic saline reduced the formation of the dangerous mucus plugs that occur in cystic fibrosis. These plugs block the airways and result in recurrent chest infections.This finding was confirmed in other studies of older infants and children suffering from cystic fibrosis.Dr. Mirjam Stahl, the lead author of the current study, pointed out: “CF lung disease starts in the first months of life, leaving only a narrow window of opportunity for preventive therapeutic interventions.”Lung disease is the chief factor responsible for symptomatic illness and death in these patients. Being able to prevent it, or at least delay the age of onset, or slow down its progression, could be a great stride forward in treating cystic fibrosis.The current trial showed the potential to accomplish this safely in the early days of life.At the end of the 12-month follow-up period, the hypertonic saline group showed a higher lung clearance index.This group also gained significantly more weight (a mean difference of 1.1 pounds, or 0.5 kg, between the two groups was noted), as well as approximately an inch in height.The increase in weight corroborated earlier mouse CF studies which used hypertonic saline.In both groups there was little difference in the rate at which exacerbations or adverse events occurred.Another question that was investigated in this study was the possibility of safely testing these infants using lung clearance index and chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).These tests can measure the outcome of this therapy in quantitative terms.The lung clearance index is a measure of air flow through the pulmonary airways, and indirectly reflects the degree of mucous blockage that is among the earliest features of lung disease caused by CF.On the other hand, early structural abnormalities in the lungs are picked up using MRI.The scientists in this study found that both measures were safely applicable to infants, as well as being well tolerated by them. The lung clearance index was, however, more useful in assessing therapeutic benefit in this study.
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Dec 17 2018America’s teens report a dramatic increase in their use of vaping devices in just a single year, with 37.3 percent of 12th graders reporting “any vaping” in the past 12 months, compared to just 27.8 percent in 2017. These findings come from the 2018 Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey of a nationally representative sample of eighth, 10th and 12th graders in schools nationwide, funded by a government grant to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The annual results were announced today by the director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health, along with the scientists who lead the research team.Reported use of vaping nicotine specifically in the 30 days prior to the survey nearly doubled among high school seniors from 11 percent in 2017 to 20.9 percent in 2018. More than 1 in 10 eighth graders (10.9 percent) say they vaped nicotine in the past year, and use is up significantly in virtually all vaping measures among eighth, 10th and 12th graders. Reports of past year marijuana vaping also increased this year, at 13.1 percent for 12th graders, up from 9.5 percent last year.”Teens are clearly attracted to the marketable technology and flavorings seen in vaping devices; however, it is urgent that teens understand the possible effects of vaping on overall health; the development of the teen brain; and the potential for addiction,” said Nora D. Volkow, M.D., director of NIDA. “Research tells us that teens who vape may be at risk for transitioning to regular cigarettes, so while we have celebrated our success in lowering their rates of tobacco use in recent years, we must continue aggressive educational efforts on all products containing nicotine.”The percent of 12th graders who say they vaped “just flavoring” in the past year also increased to 25.7 percent in 2018 from 20.6 percent in 2017. However, it is unclear if teens know what is in the vaping devices they are using, since the most popular devices do not have nicotine-free options, and some labeling has been shown to be inaccurate. There was also a significant jump in perceived availability of vaping devices and liquids in eighth and 10th graders, with 45.7 percent and 66.6 percent, respectively, saying the devices are “fairly easy” or “very easy” to get.There is more information on the survey’s vaping findings in this week’s issue of The New England Journal of Medicine. In a letter to the editor written by Dr. Richard Miech, the MTF study team lead. Dr. Miech points out that the one-year increases in the prevalence of nicotine vaping translate into approximately 1.3 million additional adolescents who vaped in 2018, as compared with 2017. The increase in vaping rates between 2017-2018 also aligns with the recently released CDC/FDA government funded National Youth Tobacco Survey.TobaccoThis year’s survey shows regular tobacco is still at its lowest point in the survey since it began measuring it, with only 3.6 percent of high school seniors smoking daily, compared to 22.4 percent two decades ago. Smoking tobacco with a hookah is significantly lower than five years ago, at 7.8 percent in the past year among high school seniors, compared to 21.4 percent in 2013.OpioidsThe alarming news about vaping is in sharp contrast to the good news about teenage opioid use. The past year use of narcotics other than heroin (i.e., prescription opioids) is at 3.4 percent among 12th graders–a significant change from 4.2 percent in 2017. Only 1.7 percent of high school seniors report misuse of Vicodin in the past year, compared to a peak of 10.5 percent 15 years ago. It is also important to note that heroin use in all three grades remains very low with only 0.4 percent of 12th graders reporting past year use.Related StoriesCo-use of cannabis and tobacco associated with worse functioning, problematic behaviorsE-cigarette use on the rise among cancer patients and cancer survivorsCartoons influencing young adults to vape, finds new study”With illicit opioid use at generally the lowest in the history of the survey, it is possible that being in high school offers a protective effect against opioid misuse and addiction,” said Dr. Volkow. “We will be focusing much of our new prevention research on the period of time when teens transition out of school into the adult world and become exposed to the dangerous use of these drugs.”Marijuana and Other Drugs Close to 1 in 4 high school seniors report use of an illicit drug in the past month, led by marijuana use. Rates of overall marijuana use are steady, with 5.8 percent of 12th graders reporting daily use. Daily use of marijuana has been reported by high school seniors for the past 20 years at somewhere between 5.0 and 6.6 percent. Past year rates of marijuana use are generally steady among sophomores and seniors, showing as 27.5 percent for 10th graders and 35.9 percent for 12th graders. However, there is a significant five-year drop among eighth graders–from 12.7 percent in 2013 to 10.5 percent in 2018. There continues to be more 12th graders who report using marijuana every day than smoking cigarettes (5.8 percent vs. 3.6 percent) and only 26.7 percent of 12th graders think regular marijuana use offers great risk of harm.Other illicit drugs, including cocaine, synthetic cannabinoids, and MDMA remain close to historic lows. Inhalants, the only drug category that is usually higher among younger teens, is reported at 4.6 among eighth graders, compared to a peak of 12.8 percent in 1995.AlcoholThere is positive news related to teen drinking with just 17.5 percent of 12th graders saying they have been drunk in the past 30 days, down significantly from five years ago, when it was reported at 26 percent. Reports of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in the past two weeks) is down significantly among 12th graders, at 13.8 percent–down from 16.6 percent in 2017, and compared to 31.5 percent when the rates peaked in 1998. These findings represent the lowest rates seen for these alcohol measures since the survey began asking the questions.”We are encouraged to see continued declines in a variety of measures of underage alcohol use,” said George F. Koob, Ph.D., director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. “The new data, however, underscore that far too many young people continue to drink at a time in their lives when their brains and bodies are quite vulnerable to alcohol-related harms. We remain committed to developing and improving strategies to prevent the onset of drinking among youth, so that more young people can be spared the consequences of alcohol misuse.”The MTF survey releases findings the same year the data is collected. It has been conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor since 1975.Overall, 44,482 students from 392 public and private schools participated in this year’s MTF survey. Since 1975, the survey has measured drug, alcohol, and cigarette use and related attitudes in 12th graders nationwide. Eighth and 10th graders were added to the survey in 1991. Survey participants generally report their drug use behaviors across three-time periods: lifetime, past year, and past month. NIDA has provided grant funding for the survey since its inception. Source:https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2018/12/teens-using-vaping-devices-in-record-numbers
Source:http://www.thoracic.org/ The researchers adjusted their findings for factors that may have biased their results, including body mass index, family income, diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking and the social economic status of the neighborhood participants lived in.The researchers also looked at sleep efficiency, the percent of time in bed spent actually asleep compared to total time in bed, using a device called a wrist actigraph that measures small movements. They did not find an association between air pollution and sleep efficiency when they adjusted for those same factors.Because the study was not a randomized, controlled trial, it cannot prove a cause and effect relationship between air pollution and sleep apnea. The researchers said another study limitation was that they could not adjust their findings for noise and light pollution, which may affect sleep.Summing up their findings, the authors wrote that air quality improvements may have an unrecognized benefit: better sleep health. “While prior studies have largely focused on individual risk factors for sleep apnea,” the researchers said that their data “suggest environmental features also contribute to the variation of sleep disorders across groups.”This connection, they added, “has implications for regulatory standards, public health, environmental justice and health disparities, as higher levels of air pollution are more prevalent in poor, urban areas as seen in this MESA cohort.” 60 percent for each 5 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3) increase in yearly PM5 exposure. 39 percent for each 10 parts per billion increase in yearly NO2 Jan 17 2019The ill effects of air pollution may literally be causing some people to lose sleep, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.In “The Association of Ambient Air Pollution with Sleep Apnea: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis,” Martha E. Billings, MD, MSc, and co-authors report a link between obstructive sleep apnea and increases in two of the most common air pollutants: fine particulate pollution, known as PM2.5, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a traffic-related pollutant. Prior studies have shown that air pollution impacts lung and heart health, but only a few studies have looked at how air pollution might affect sleep. It seemed likely that air pollution was detrimental to sleep, given that air pollution causes upper airway irritation, swelling and congestion, and may also affect the parts of the brain and central nervous system that control breathing patterns and sleep.”Dr. Billings, lead study author and associate professor of medicine at the University of Washington The researchers analyzed data from 1,974 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who also enrolled in both MESA’s Sleep and Air Pollution studies. The participants (average age 68) were a diverse group: 36 percent were white, 28 percent black, 24 percent Hispanic and 12 percent Asian. Nearly half (48 percent) of the participants had sleep apnea.Using air pollution measurements gathered from hundreds of MESA Air and Environmental Protection Agency monitoring sites in six U.S. cities, plus local environment features and sophisticated statistical tools, the research team was able to estimate air pollution exposures at each participant’s home.Related StoriesSleep disorders in patients with low back pain linked to increased healthcare visits, costsUnpleasant experiences could be countered with a good night’s REM sleepPink noise enhances deep sleep for people with mild cognitive impairmentThe study found a participant’s odds of having sleep apnea increased by: